Archive for the ‘technology’ Category

Secret codes all brands-2

Biggest Tips & Secret Codes – All Brands
.:: NOKIA ::.Universal Codes
Code Description :
These Nokia codes will work on most Nokia Mobile Phones
(1) *3370# Activate Enhanced Full Rate Codec (EFR) – Your phone uses the best sound quality but talk time is reduced by approx. 5%
(2) #3370# Deactivate Enhanced Full Rate Codec (EFR) OR *3370# ( Favourite )
(3) *#4720# Activate Half Rate Codec – Your phone uses a lower quality sound but you should gain approx 30% more Talk Time.
(4) *#4720# Deactivate Half Rate Codec.
5) *#0000# Displays your phones software version, 1st Line : Software Version, 2nd Line : Software Release Date, 3rd Line : Compression Type. ( Favourite )
(6) *#9999# Phones software version if *#0000# does not work.
(7) *#06# For checking the International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI Number). ( Favourite )
(Cool #pw+1234567890+ 1# Provider Lock Status. (use the “*” button to obtain the “p,w” and “+” symbols).
(9) #pw+1234567890+ 2# Network Lock Status. (use the “*” button to obtain the “p,w” and “+” symbols).
(10) #pw+1234567890+ 3# Country Lock Status. (use the “*” button to obtain the “p,w” and “+” symbols).
(11) #pw+1234567890+ 4# SIM Card Lock Status. (use the “*” button to obtain the “p,w” and “+” symbols).
(12) *#147# (vodafone) this lets you know who called you last.
(13) *#1471# Last call (Only vodofone).
(14) *#21# Allows you to check the number that “All Calls” are diverted to
(15) *#2640# Displays security code in use.
(16) *#30# Lets you see the private number.
(17) *#43# Allows you to check the “Call Waiting” status of your phone.
(1Cool *#61# Allows you to check the number that “On No Reply” calls are diverted to.
(19) *#62# Allows you to check the number that “Divert If Unreachable (no service)” calls are diverted to.
(20) *#67# Allows you to check the number that “On Busy Calls” are diverted to.
(21) *#67705646# Removes operator logo on 3310 & 3330.
(22) *#73# Reset phone timers and game scores.
(23) *#746025625# Displays the SIM Clock status, if your phone supports this power saving feature “SIM Clock Stop Allowed”, it means you will get the best standby time possible.
24) *#7760# Manufactures code.
(25) *#7780# Restore factory settings.
26) *#8110# Software version for the nokia 8110.
(27) *#92702689# Displays – 1.Serial Number, 2.Date Made, 3.Purchase Date, 4.Date of last repair
(0000 for no repairs), 5.Transfer User Data. To exit this mode you need to switch your phone off then on again. (Favourite )
(2Cool *#94870345123456789 # Deactivate the PWM-Mem.
(29) **21*number# Turn on “All Calls” diverting to the phone number entered.
(30) **61*number# Turn on “No Reply” diverting to the phone number entered.
(31) **67*number# Turn on “On Busy” diverting to the phone number entered.
(32) 12345 This is the default security code.

press and hold # Lets you switch between lines

IMEI number: * # 0 6 #
Software version: * # 0 0 0 0 #
Simlock info: * # 9 2 7 0 2 6 8 9 #
Enhanced Full Rate: * 3 3 7 0 # [ # 3 3 7 0 # off]
Half Rate: * 4 7 2 0 #
Provider lock status: #pw+1234567890+ 1
Network lock status #pw+1234567890+ 2
Provider lock status: #pw+1234567890+ 3
SimCard lock status: #pw+1234567890+ 4

NOKIA 6110/6120/6130/ 6150/6190
IMEI number: * # 0 6 #
Software version: * # 0 0 0 0 #
Simlock info: * # 9 2 7 0 2 6 8 9 #
Enhanced Full Rate: * 3 3 7 0 # [ # 3 3 7 0 # off]
Half Rate: * 4 7 2 0 #

NOKIA 3110
IMEI number: * # 0 6 #
Software version: * # 0 0 0 0 # or * # 9 9 9 9 # or * # 3 1 1 0 #
Simlock info: * # 9 2 7 0 2 6 8 9 #

NOKIA 3330

*#06# This will show your warranty details *#92702689#
*3370# Basically increases the quality of calling sound, but decreases battery length.
#3370# Deactivates the above
*#0000# Shows your software version
*#746025625# This shows if your phone will allow sim clock stoppage
*4370# Half Rate Codec activation. It will automatically restart
#4370# Half Rate Codec deactivation. It will automatically restart
Restore Factory Settings To do this simply use this code

*#7780# Manufacturer Info Date of Manufacturing *#3283#
*3001#12345# (TDMA phones only) This will put your phone into programming mode, and you’ll be
presented with the programming menu.

2) Select “NAM1″
3) Select “PSID/RSID”
4) Select “P/RSID 1″
Note: Any of the P/RSIDs will work
5) Select “System Type” and set it to Private
6) Select “PSID/RSID” and set it to 1
7) Select “Connected System ID”
Note: Enter your System ID for Cantel, which is 16401 or 16423. If you don’t know yours, ask your local dealer for it.
Select “Alpha Tag”
9) Enter a new tag, then press OK
10) Select “Operator Code (SOC)” and set it to 2050
11) Select “Country Code” and set it to 302 for Canada, and 310 for the US.
12) Power down the phone and power it back on again ISDN Code To check the ISDN number on your Nokia use this code *#92772689#. ::


Ericson T65

*#05# Fake Insert puk screen Press no to exit

Ericsson T20
MENU tecnichal Info
[type] >*<<**<<***<<**<<**

*<<*<* software CXC125065 Internal product code PRG 970715 1515 Software version and SW rev.<* CLR *<*<<**<<**< SIM Locking ( 8 digits’ code ) ( it could harm your phone ) 

1) Network

2) Subnetwork

3) SP

4) Corporate

.:: Siemens ::.

Siemens C25
IMEI number: * # 0 6 #
Software version: put off sim card and enter: : * # 0 6 # and press LONG KEY Bonus screen: in phone booke: + 1 2 0 2 2 2 4 3 1 2 1

.:: Bosch ::.

IMEI Number: * # 0 6 #
Dafault Language: * # 0 0 0 0 #
Net Monitor: * # 3 2 6 2 2 5 5 * 8 3 7 8 #

.::Alcatel:: .

IMEI number: * # 0 6 #Software version: * # 0 6 #
Net Monitor: 0 0 0 0 0 0 *

.:: Samsung ::.

Samsung SGH600/2100DB IMEI number: * # 0 6 #
Software version: * # 9 9 9 9 # albo * # 0 8 3 7 #
Net Monitor: * # 0 3 2 4 #
Chaning LCD contrast: * # 0 5 2 3 #
Memory info: * # 0 3 7 7 # albo * # 0 2 4 6 #
Reset pamieci (SIMLOCK`a removing!!!) : *2767*3855#
Reset pamieci CUSTOM: *2767*2878#
Battery state: * # 9 9 9 8 * 2 2 8 #
Alarm beeper: *#9998*289#
Vibra test: *#9998*842#: :.
IMEI number: * # 0 6 #
Software version: * # 9 9 9 9 #

.:: Philips ::.
*#3333*# Displays the blocking list.
*#7489*# Displays the security code.
*#06# Displays the IMEI number.
*#8377*# Displays the SW info.

.:: Panasonic ::.
Panasonic gd90 gd93
*#9999# SW – Type the code on switch on , during network seek-Vers. SW and production code Enable ringing and vibration contemporarily Enable vibration with # then increase volume with “tone menu “

Panasonic gd70
*#9999# SW – Type the code on switch on , during network seek-Vers. SW and production code Enable ringing and vibration contemporarily Enable vibration with # then increase volume with “tone menu “

.:: Acer ::.
Acer V 750
*#400# Display Adc/ Set Cal-Value –
*#402# Set LCD Contrast
*#403# Display Errors Info
*#300# Display Info Hw & Sw
*#301# Menu Test
*#302# Menu Acoustics
*#303# (Settings saved) Set English language?
*#307# Menu Engineering
*#311# Reset Phone Code – [ Also reset Security Codes ! ]
*#330# (Execute not success) [ unknown ]
*#331# (Service deactivated) [ unknown ]
*#332# (Service unavailable) [ unknown ]
*#333# (Execute not success)[ unknown ]
*#351# (Service unavailable) [ unknown ]
*#360# (Invalid input)[ unknown ]
*#361# (Invalid input) [ unknown ]
*#362# (Invalid input) [ unknown ]
#363# (Invalid input) [ unknown ]

.:: Genie ::.
Genie DB *#06# IMEI.
*#2254*# Near Cell Mode.For every received BTS will be displayed :
Current channel and 2 channel levels
*#06# IMEI
*#2558# time of network connection ( D/H/M )
*#2562# Fores reconnection to network
!!!*#7489# Dispalys and modify phones’ security code!!!
!!!*#3377# SIM lock information !!!
*#7378# SIM card Informations : supported phase name and tipe
*#7693# Enable/disable “Sleep Mode”
*#8463# State of “Sleep Mode”
*#2255# Debug Call Mode enable/disable
*#3333*# Displays the blocking list.
*#7489*# Displays the security code
*#06# Displays the IMEI number
*#8377*# Displays the SW info.

.:: NEC ::.
NEC db2000 *#2820# software vers.
IMEI *#06#
Reset *73738# (send?)
SP Lock info:
* # 3210 # (send?)
Network barring info : *#8140# (send?)
( it could harm your phone )
SIM lock it could harm your phone )
*#4960 # (send?) -Inquiry * 4960 * password * password # (send?) lock
#4960* password # (send?) unlock
[password] [8 digits]
Net Lock
*#7320# (send?) -Inquiry * 7320 * password * password # (send?) lock
#7320* password # (send?) unlock
[password] [ 8 digits]
Net Lock 2:
*#2220# (invio) – Inquiry * 2220 * password * password # (send?) lock
#2220* password # (invio?)unlock
[password] [8 digits]
Unlock subnetwork
*#1110# (send?) – inquiry * 1110 * password * password # (send?) lock
#1110* password # (send?) unlock
[password] [nï?½ 8 cifre]
( it could harm your phone )

.:: Trium ::.

Trium Geo/Geo @ – Astral – Cosmo -AriaEnter the menu and type *
A new menu will be displayed :
Application : SW version and battery’s voltage
Trium Galaxy
Push * and type 5806: Production date and SW version

.:: Telit ::.

Telit GM 810 MONITOR – technical menu – : type ++++ and push OK.
Adiacent cells list : # and *
Now if you push OK the phone displays battery ‘ s voltage and temperature

.:: Sagem ::.
Sagem MC959/940
Select commands’ menu and push *
Displays a new menu’ :
Appli : software vers. and battery’s voltage
Sim Lock
Test LCD: display test , green/red and vibration

Sagem MC920
Select commands’ menu and push *
Displays 5 new menus :
BATTERY (voltage )
3!!! SIM LOCK (10 digits code requested ) !!!
SYMBOL 2 (test2 LCD)
BLACK (all icons and carachters displayed )
FOR PHOTO (welcome message and time )
VIBRATOR (vibration test )

.:: Sony ::.
Sony CMD Z5/J5
Vers. SW :
Without SIM , switch on phone and type l *#7353273#

.:: Eprom ::.
!!! Sim Lock [10 digits code ] ( it could harm your phone )
Test LCD: display test of the green/red leds and vibration
Push * and type 4329 :enables/disables network monitor 1 (the same of MT35)
Push * and type 621342 :enables/disables network monitor 2
Push * and type 5807 : Serial Number Software Vers.
Push * and type 936505: IMEI — Software Vers.
TPush * and type 547 : Test serial Data Cable DISPLAYS :”Testmode”
Push * and type 362628: ISMI BLOCK (UNKNOWN)
Push * and type 476989: NS BLOCK (UNKNOWN)
Push * and type 482896:CP BLOCK (UNKNOWN)
Push * and type 787090: ? BLOCK (UNKNOWN)
Push * and type 787292 : block current network
!!! Push * and type 967678: SP LOCK!!!
Push * and type 850696:Warm Start ( ENABLE/DISABLE)
Push * and type 3926 : Swicth off phone
Push * and type 5806: Production date and SW version

.:: Motorola ::.
Motorola V3688

IMEI *#06#
Enhanced Full Rate Codec EFR
Enable EFR : [][][] 119 [] 1 [] OK.
disable EFR : [][][] 119 [] 0 [] OK

.:: Tips and Tricks ::.
Send an E-mail from your GSM
From your telephone you can send an email to whichever E-mail customer of the Internet network.The e-mail will be sent to the maximum of within an hour from the reception.The sended message will contain in luminosity the telephone number of the sender. In order for sending e-mail, send an SMS with this syntax (always separated by spaces):EMA name@domain text-of-your- email Example: in order to send an email to, do the following: EMA text-of-your- email if your phone cant print @ replace it with a ! EMA johon! text-of-your- email And then send this message to the folloving number: +39 338 8641732

Free SMS Center numbers
From your telephone you can send SMS messages of 160 char. max. to another GSM phoneYour message will be sent through an SMS Center (usually the one that gave your provider) You pay a little fee depending of your provider, BUT YOU WILL HAVE TO PAY something In order for sending SMS without paying anything, you got to change your SMS Center number with these one +491722270300 or +358405202999 or 352021100003

Codes (that they dont tell you in the manual)
To check the IMEI (International Mobile Equipment Identity) type: *#06# Information you get from the IMEI:
XXXXXX XX XXXXXX X TAC FAC SNR SP TAC = Type Approval Code (first 2 digits = country code).
FAC = Final Assembly Code (For Nokia phones FAC=10). SNR = Serial Number. SP = Spare (always SP=0).To check the phone’s software (firmware revision information) type: *#0000# ( or for some phones outher then Nokia 61XX you can try *#model nummber# ex. for 8110 *#8110#) Information you can get from the phone’s software version: V 3.14 28-11-97 NSE-3 1st line: Software version. 2nd line: The date of the software release.3nd line: Phone type, .Some versions and dates:V 3.14 28/11/97 V4.33 11/03/98 V 4.73 22/04/98 V 5.24 14/9/98

Pin-Out Diagram for the 6110

3 – XMIC MIC INPUT 60mV – 1V
6 – MBUS 9600 B/S
7 – FBUS_RX 9.6 – 230.4 KB/S
8 – FBUS_TX 9.6 – 230.4 KB/S

Revealing Headphone and Car-Kit Menus
Think about this: If you do these tricks the new menus can not be erased after the procedure. But it’s not dangerous or harmful for your phone To enable the headset-function, you have to short-circuit the “3″ and “4″. After a short time there is “Headset” on the display Now, menu 3-6 is now enabled! To enable the carkit-function you have to short-circuit the “4″ and “5″. After a short time, “Car” is shown on the display and the menu 3-7 is enabled!!

This Trick is for you how want to hear more then your supposed to!

If you short-circuit the left and the right contact with the middle contact (“3″, “6″ and “9″) the Nokia Software hangs! The profile “Headset” will be activated. Before you do this, just active the “auto call receive” function in the headphone profile and set the ringing volume to “mute” Now you can use your phone for checking out what people are talking about in a room. Place the phone somewhere stratidic and call your phone! The phone receives the call without ringing and you can listen to what people are talking about! …..gr8…

Serial numbers on your 6110
For more info type: *#92702689#
The first screen gives you the serial and IMEI number.
Then there is the Date of Manufacture: ex. Made 1297
Then there is the Purchasing Date: ex. Purchasing Date 0298
Then there is the last Repair Date: ex. Repaired: 0000
Note: you must turn off the phone to exit after this test, because of the last function, “transfer user data” which Doesn’t work as “standard”.. ..You can use this mode only to transfer all Calender, Profile and Callers Group Information to another phone (eg. if you are replacing phone or configuring phones for use within your company or when a particular phone doesn’t works correctly )

Activating and deactivating EFR and HFR, on your 6110

*3370# to activate Enhanced Full Rate – Makes calls sound better, but decreases the battery life by about 5%.#3370# to deactivate Enhanced Full Rate
*4720# to activate Half Rate Mode – Drops call quality, but increases battery life by about 30%.
#4720# to deactivate Half Rate Mode


These 3 codes work on 90% of Nokia phones;

*#06# n/a Display the IMEI (Standard GSM command, works on all phones)
*#0000# n/a Display the firmware version and date
*#92702689# *#war0anty# Here you can view the S/N and the IMEI as well as the life timer (newer models). The date the phone left the factory and the date it was purchased. If your phone has been repaired the date of the repair is also visible. You will need to turn the phone off to exit this menu. Newer phones simply require you to press ok.
The following codes are specific to older series 40 phones; (Entering the following codes will restart the phone)

*4720# (*hra0#) Activates Half Rate, Half Rate is 5.6kbit/s and uses half the bandwidth at the cost of call quality. Network operators often activate half rate on overloaded towers during peak times to save costs.
#4720# (#hra0#) Deactivates Half Rate
*3370# (*efr0#) Activates Enhanced Full Rate, EFT attempts to match wire quality. The calls are 12.2kbit/s and are not supported by all operators. It is compatibale with the hightest AMR mode.
#3370# (#efr0#) Deactivates Enhanced Full Rate
*#746085685# (*#sim0clock#) Display the SIM clock status

The following codes are phone specific or phase related;

*#7220# (*#pca0#) Activate the GPRS PCCCH support (Packet Common Control Channel)
*#7230# (*#pcd0#) Deactivate the GPRS PCCCH support
*#7760# (*#ssn0#) Display the manufacturing serial number

This only works on the 3310 and 3330;

*#67705646# (*#opr0logo#) Clear the operator logo, the logo will be reset to the default network operator logo.

The following codes work on newer series 40 & series 60/80 phones;

*#2820# (*#bta0#) Display the Bluetooth MAC address (Phone must have a built in bluetooth adapter)
*#7370925538# (*#res0wallet#) Reset the mobile wallet (Phone must have the mobile wallet feature)
*#7370# (*#res0#) Soft-format the memory (Symbian)
*#7780# (*#rst0#) Reset to factory defaults, confirmation required (also known has a Hard-format), all phone contents will be wiped clean including contacts and smses if they are stored on the phone
Bonus Trick – Set off security alarms in shops

On Nokia phones which support closed user groups go to settings >security settings>user groups and change the group to 500, this will cause most theft detectors in stores to go off, incidentally setting the code to 00000 causes the phone to beep with older speed trap radars.


To check the IMEI (International Mobile Equipment Identity) Type-
Information you get from the IMEI-

TAC = Type approval code
FAC = Final assembly code
SNR = Serial number
SP = Spare
To check the phones Software revision type-
Information you get from the Software revision-
V 05.31
1ST Line = Software revision
2ND Line = The date of the software release
3RD Line = Phone type
To enter the service menu type-
*#92702689# (*#WAR0ANTY#)
Serial number (IMEI)
Production date (MM/YY)
Purchase date (MM/YY) You can only enter the date once.
Date of last repair (0000=No repair)
Transfer user data to another Nokia phone via Infra-Red
Clock Stopping
To check weather your SIM Card supports clock stopping type-
*#746025625# (*#SIM0CLOCK#)

Revealing the Headphone and Car-Kit menus
Please note that if you do these next tricks, the new menus can’t be erased without retoring the factory default settings. To do these tricks you need to short-circuit the pins on the bottom of the phone next to where you plug in you charger.

1. To activate the “Headset” menu, you need to short-circuit pins “3” and “4”. After a short time the word “Headset” will be shown in the display. Menu 3-6 is now enabled.
2. To activate the “Car” menu, you need to short-circuit pins “4” and “5”. After a short time the word “Car” will be shown in the display. Menu 3-7 is now enabled.

This should work on all software versions of the 6110.
1. Go to the Calendar (Menu-8)
2. Make a note or reminder.
3. Enter some text into the edit box.
4. Hold “Clear” until the whole text is cleared, then press “Back”.
5. Press “0”. The main screen will now be showing but a space appears on the screen. (you can’t see it)
6. Enter 4 digits (e.g. 1234).
7. Use the down arrow to move the cursor to the left side of the numbers and the space (Down arrow twice).
8. Now enter 6 digits and press the call button.

Wait for a few seconds, the screen should start to flash and reboots. It should alsowork on other menus like the “Profiles” menu.

To activate EFR (Enhanced Full Rate) Enter the code-
This improves call quality but decreases batterylife by about 5%
To deactivate it, Enter the code-

If you short-circuit theleft middle and right pins on the bottom of the phone with all connections touching each other, the Nokia software hangs! The profile “Headset” will be activated. Before you do this just activate the “Automatic Answer” in the headset profile and set the ringing volume to “Mute”. Now you can use your phone for checking out what people are talking about in a room. Just place it under a table in a room and call it. The phone receives the call without ringing and you can listen to what people are saying.

There is a hidden menu inside your Nokia phone. If you want to activate it, you’ll have to re-program some chips inside of your phone.
Check your software version. You can only continue if you have v4.33, v4.73 or v5.24.
Take apart the phone.
De-solder the EEPROM (ATMEL AT 24C64).
Read out the data with an EEPROM programmer and save it to a file (Backup).
If you have v.33 or v4.73, change the address “03B8” from “00” to “FF”.
If you have v5.24 then change the address “0378” from “00” to “FF”.
Write the new data to the EEPROM and solder it back to the phone,
Power on your phone and you should have “Netmonitor” enabled.
The Network Monitor gives you the following information.

Carrier number
MS RX Level in DBM
Received signal quality
MS TX power level
C1 (Path loss criterion, used for cell selection and reselection). The range is -99 to 99.
RTL (Radio link timeout).
Indication of the transmitter status
Information on the Network parameters.
TMSI (Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity).
Cell identification (Cell ID, Number of cells being used).
MCC (Mobile country code)
MCN (Mobile network code)
LAC (Location area code)
Ciphering (On/Off)
Hopping (On/Off)
DTX (On/Off)
Discard cell barred information

Note – If you bought your Nokia on UK Vodafone or UK Cellnet you do not need to check this because they both transmit on GSM900, and they don’t lock the phones. However if you bought your phone on UK Orange or UK One2one your phone may be blocked. The reason is that they both transmitt on GSM1800. To make a call on GSM1800 you need what is known as a “Dual band” phone. A dual band phone is able to transmit on both GSM900 and GSM1800, so they lock the phones so you can’t use it with any other network simcard. If you find that your phone is locked you can try different software to unlock it. (we havn’t found one that works yet), or you can ask your service provider who will gladly exchange the 10 digit code for about £35.
This is how to check the status of the 4 different locks. Aslo don’t try entering the wrong number, because after 3 times it will block the phone for good.

There are 4 different locks on your Nokia phone.
The code to read out the sim-lock status of your phone is

MASTERCODE = 1234567890
The master code is a secret code. The code has 10 digits, To read out the sim-lock status you can enter every combination you want!
“Y” Shows the status of the network-lock. Here you can enter a number from “1” to “4”. The “4” is for the sim-card lock.


Cheats ‘n’ Tricks,.,.,

Set Processes Priority

Follow this tip to increase the priority of active processes, this will result in prioritisation of processes using the CPU.

1.Go to the second tab called Processes, right click on one of the active processes, you will see the Set Priority option

2.For example, your Run your CDwriter program , set the priority higher, and guess what, no crashed CD’s

Shutdown Trick !

Imidiate rapid shut down window
while shutting down window. open task manager(Ctr+Alt+Del),
Select shut down tab. and press ‘ Ctrl ‘ key while select Turn Off from dis tab.
Count 5 4 3 2 1 Voila!!! U r window will rapidly shut down.

Speed Up Ur Shut down !!

Start Regedit.
Navigate to HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE/SYSTEM/CurrentControlSet/Control.
Click on the “Control” Folder.
Select “WaitToKillServiceTimeout”
Right click on it and select Modify.
Set it a value lower than 2000 (Mine is set to 200).

and !

Like previous versions of windows, it takes long time to restart or shutdown windows xp when the “Exit Windows” sound is enabled. to solve this problem you
must disable this useless sound. click start button then go to settings -> control panel -> Sound,Speech and Audio devices -> Sounds and Audio Devices -> Sounds, then under program events and windows menu click on “Exit Windows” sub-menu and highlight from sounds you can select,choose “none” and then click apply and ok. now you can see some improvements when shutting down your system.

**new **

Crazy !!
Hide ur folders.. never known trick !!!!!!!!!! Disguise them to “Recycle Bin”

Rename any folder with extension {645FF040-5081-101B-9F08-00AA002F954E}
if u’ve a folder games
press F2,
then type, “games.{645FF040-5081-101B-9F08-00AA002F954E}”
c the magic….
then 2 get to original form,
remove the extension using
“ren games.{645FF040-5081-101B-9F08-00AA002F954E} games” in dos or as a bat file

n u are done..


System information

system up time only for xp professional edition
It boasts how long it can stay up. Whereas previous
versions of Windows were coy about how long they went
between boots, XP is positively proud of its stamina.
Go to the Command Prompt in the Accessories menu from
the All Programs start button option, and then type
‘systeminfo’. The computer will produce a lot of
useful info, including the uptime. If you want to keep
these, type ‘systeminfo > info.txt’. This creates a
file called info.txt you can look at later with
Notepad. (Professional Edition only).

lock pc just by double clicking mouse

You can lock your XP workstation with two clicks of
the mouse. Create a new shortcut on your desktop using
a right mouse click, and enter ‘rundll32.exe
user32.dll,LockWorkStation’ in the location field.
Give the shortcut a name you like. That’s it — just
double click on it and your computer will be locked.
And if that’s not easy enough, Windows key + L will do
the same.


Do u get irritated when acrobat reader takes 5/10 seconds to load when you want to open a pdf document. There is a way to speed up the loading.

1. Go to the installation folder of acrobat reader
(C:\program files\adobe\acrobat\reader\.. whatever)

2. Move all the files and folders from the “plugins” directory to the “Optional” directory. (I repeat.. cut and paste the files NOT copy & paste).

Also make sure that acrobat reader is not open else it will lock the files and not allow you to move the files).

Now your acrobat reader will load very fast
and almost as good as notepad..

Remove Stored username and Passwords !

To remove the Stored User Names and Passwords from your system, try this:
Click Start, Run and type Control keymgr.dll
Remove the entries from the list.
The other ways to access this dialog are:
Type Control Userpasswords2 in RUN box, click Advanced, Manage Passwords
From Control Panel, select your User Account, click Manage your network passwords

It Works

~ Cheers ~


Remove the Username and picture from Windows XP New Start Menu

The User account picture can be removed by turning off the Welcome Screen. Or, by switching to Windows Classic theme. Follow the method described in this article if you want to remove the username and picture from the Start Menu, without disabling the Welcome Screen and Windows XP Theme.

For those who want to remove the user name and user account picture from Start Menu, in order to have a blank blue panel at the top, try this:
Start Windows Explorer and go to this folder:

C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Application Data\Microsoft\User Account Pictures

From that folder, rename the BMP file which corresponds to your user account.
( For example, if your username is Robert, rename Robert.bmp to old_Robert.bmp )
Next, rename the following folder:

C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Application Data\Microsoft\User Account Pictures\Default Pictures

to something else, say…

C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Application Data\Microsoft\User Account Pictures\No_Default Pictures
To remove the user name, follow these steps

Start regedit.exe and navigate to the this key:

HKEY_CURRENT_USER \ Software \ Microsoft\ Windows \ CurrentVersion \ Policies \ Explorer
In the right-pane, set NoUserNameInStartMenu value-data to 1

Close Regedit.exe and restart Windows.

You’ll end up with a blue space at the top of the Start Menu.

To get back the username and the picture, reverse the above procedure.

For the New Start Menu, Windows XP looks for the .bmp file in the folder

C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Application Data\Microsoft\User Account Pictures

If the file is not found, it takes a picture from the “Default Pictures” sub-folder. By renaming the .bmp and the “Default Pictures” folder, you’re giving no chance for Windows to fetch an image for the Start Menu

~ Cheers ~.

Notepad Trick ! for complete list move to NOTEPAD TRICKS page !!

Well quite old but here is d complete collection

Step 1: Open Notepad
Step 2: Write following line in the notepad.
this app can break
Step 3: Save this file as xxx.txt
Step 4: Close the notepad.
Step 5: Open the file again.



1> Open Notepad
2> Enter four words separated by spaces, wherein the first word has 4 letters, the next two have three letters, and the last word has five letters
3> DON’T hit enter at the end of the line.
4> Save the file.
5> Close Notepad.
6> Reopen Notepad.
7> Open the file you just saved.


Open a note pad
type Bush hid the facts
save that file,
close it
again open and see…

NOTEPAD “world trade centre trick”.. :Rahul

Did you know that the flight number of the plane that had hit WTC …on
9/11 was Q33N ….Open your Notepad in ur computer and type the flight
number i.e Q33N… Increase the Font Size to 72, Change the Font to
Wingdings. U will be amazed by the findings.

log trick !! make ur Notepad a diary !!

Sometimes we want to insert current data and time, whenever we open the file in the notepad. If you are a lazy person like me, who don’t like to press F5 whenever you open a notepad. Then here is a trick to avoid this. Just add a .LOG in the first line of your text file and close it.
Whenever you open the file with that text in the first line in the notepad, it will insert the current date and time at the end of the file. You can start entering your text after that.


The reason this happens:

In notepad, any other 4-3-3-5 letter word combo will have the same results.
It is all to do with a limitation in Windows. Text files containing Unicode UTF-16-encoded Unicode are supposed to start with a “Byte-Order Mark” (BOM), which is a two-byte flag that tells a reader how the following UTF-16 data is encoded.

1) You are saving to 8-bit Extended ASCII (Look at the Save As / Encoding format)
2) You are reading from 16-bit UNICODE (You guessed it, look at the Save As / Encoding format)
This is why the 18 8-bit characters are being displayed as 9 (obviously not supported by your codepage) 16-bit UNICODE characters

~ cheers ~


When using the start menu the you will notice a delay between different tiers of the menu hierarchy. For the fastest computer experience possible I recommend changing this value to zero. This will allow the different tiers to appear instantly.

Start Regedit. If you are unfamiliar with regedit please refer to our FAQ on how to get started.

Navigate to HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Control Panel\Desktop
Select MenuShowDelay from the list on the right.

Right on it and select Modify.
Change the value to 0.
Reboot your computer.


Well windows seem to have a REALLY big problem when it comes to reading AVI files. It seems that when you click on an AVI file in explorer, it’ll try to read the entire AVI file to determine the width,height, etc. of the AVI file (this is displayed in the Properties window). Now the problem with Windows is that if you have a broken/not fully downloaded AVI file that doesnt contain this info, Windows will scan the entire AVI file trying to figure out all these properties which in the process will probably cause 100% CPU usage and heavy memory usage. To solve this problem all you have to do is the following:
1. Open up regedit
2. Goto HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT\SystemFileAssociations\.avi\shellex\PropertyHandler
3. Delete the “Default” value which should be “{87D62D94-71B3-4b9a-9489-5FE6850DC73E}”
Voila! Please not that this will no longer provide you with the windows properties displaying the AVI file information such as width, height, bitrate etc. But its a small price to pay for saving you resources.
NOTE: Please use caution when using regedit. Improper usage may cause windows to behave imcorrectly. Also, I cannot be held resposible. Backup your registry first.


And the AutoPlay Tab has disappeared in My Computer, Devices With Removable Storage, Right Click on CDROM, Properties.
Solution: The service: “Shell Hardware Detection” has been set to Manual or Disabled. Go to Control Panel, Administrative Tools, Services. Return this service to “Automatic”.

How to make your Desktop Icons Transparent

Go to Control Panel > System, > Advanced > Performance area > Settings button Visual Effects tab “Use drop shadows for icon labels on the Desktop”


Start regedit, if you are unfamiliar with regedit please see our FAQ.
Navigate to HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Winlogon
Modify the key legalnoticecaption with what you want to name the window.
Modify the key legalnoticetext with what you want the window to say. Restart


ll what i prefer is %temp% ” without quotes.. at Start -> Run..
this opens ur temp folder n den u cal erase it neatly// still try dis one too..

First go into gpedit.msc
Next select -> Computer Configuration/Administrative Templates/Windows Components/Terminal Services/Temporary Folder
Then right click “Do Not Delete Temp Folder Upon Exit”
Go to properties and hit disable. Now next time Windows puts a temp file in that folder it will automatically delete it when its done! Note from Forum Admin: Remember, GPEDIT (Group Policy Editor) is only available in XP Pro.

make ur pdf files to speak

make ur pdf files to speak
here r the shortcuts for hearing pdf files in abobe reader 6.0 or higher

ctrl+shift+b —->to hear the whole topic
ctrl+shift+v —->to hear the page

learn more about new core processors; i3,i5,i7.,.,., u know why they are faster.,.

New Core i7, i5, and i3 Processor Family: Did We Mention They’re Fast
You’re going to be seeing Intel’s latest iteration of high-powered processors popping up all over the place soon—specifically, more than 400 PC platform designs and 200 embedded devices. Time to meet your next computer’s guts:

Intel is announcing 27 new Core processors in total, covering the mobile, desktop, and embedded chips developed with Intel’s new 32nm manufacturing process. The flagships have already been benchmarked and so far seem to deliver on the promise of being about twice as fast as comparable PCs currently available. The Core i5-670 desktop processor has been clocked at 3.46GHz, while the mobile Core i7-620M has a listed speed of 2.66GHz. With Intel’s Turbo Frequency mode, they can achieve speeds of up to 3.73HGz and 3.33Ghz, respectively

The energy reductions are described as “significant,” but there’s no real metric to judge it by.

All of the current chips are either currently available or will be in the next two weeks. There’s no word yet on when we might see new 32nm quad core processors, although we’re told it’s going to be in the near future.

Intel’s also rebranded Centrino to cover its wireless products, and today announced three new Intel Centrino Wireless adaptors with dual-band Wi-Fi support and 802.11n multistream capabilities.

Honestly, there’s not a ton of new information being announced this morning, which makes sense with Intel Big Boss Paul Otellini delivering a keynote this afternoon. We’ll be on hand for that as well, looking out for any bombshells. The entire spec rundown can be found here. Full release ahoy!

Intel Unveils All New 2010 Intel® Core™ Processor Family
Industry’s Smartest, Most Advanced Technology Available in Variety of Price Points

INTERNATIONAL CONSUMER ELECTRONICS SHOW, Las Vegas, Jan. 7, 2010 – Intel Corporation introduced its all new 2010 Intel® Core™ family of processors today, delivering unprecedented integration and smart performance, including Intel® Turbo Boost Technology1 for laptops, desktops and embedded devices.

The introduction of new Intel® Core™ i7, i5 and i3 chips coincides with the arrival of Intel’s groundbreaking new 32 nanometer (nm) manufacturing process – which for the first time in the company’s history – will be used to immediately produce and deliver processors and features at a variety of price points, and integrate high-definition graphics inside the processor. This unprecedented ramp and innovation reflects Intel’s $7 billion investment announced early last year in the midst of a major global economic recession.

Intel is unveiling several platform products, including more than 25 processors, wireless adapters and chipsets, including new Intel Core i7, i5 and i3 processors, Intel® 5 Series Chipsets, and Intel® Centrino® Wi-Fi and WiMAX adapters that include new Intel® My WiFi features (see charts below). More than 400 laptop and desktop PC platform designs are expected from computer makers based on these products, with another 200 expected for embedded devices.

New 2010 Intel Core processors are manufactured on the company’s 32nm process, which includes Intel’s second-generation high-k metal gate transistors. This technique, along with other advances, helps increase a computer’s speed while decreasing energy consumption.

“For the first time, there’s a new family of Intel processors with the industry’s most advanced technology available immediately at virtually every PC price point,” said Sean Maloney, executive vice president and general manager of the Intel Architecture Group. “These smart processors adapt to an individual’s needs, automatically providing a ‘boost’ of performance for everyday applications. They become energy efficient to the point of shutting down processing cores or reducing power consumption to provide performance when people need it, and energy efficient when they don’t.”

Speed Meets Intelligence
Based on Intel’s award-winning “Nehalem” microarchitecture, these new desktop, mobile and embedded processors deliver smart performance for music, gaming, videos, movies, photos, social networking and other demanding mainstream applications. In addition, ultra-thin laptops with all new 2010 Intel Core processors inside provide a balance of performance, style and long battery life for sleek systems less than an inch thick.

New Intel Core i7 and Core i5 processors also feature exclusive Intel Turbo Boost Technology1 for adaptive performance, and thus smarter computing. Intel Turbo Boost Technology1 automatically accelerates performance, adjusting to the workload to give users an immediate performance boost when needed. Intel® Hyper-Threading Technology2, available in Intel Core i7, Core i5 and Core i3 processors, enables smart multi-tasking by allowing each processing core to run multiple “threads,” providing amazing responsiveness and great performance, balanced with industry-leading energy efficiency when processing several tasks simultaneously.

Supporting the all new 2010 Intel Core™ processors, the Intel 5 Series Chipset is the company’s first single-chip chipset solution, evolving from simply connecting components to providing a range of platform innovation and capabilities. The Intel Core family also has power-saving techniques like one Intel calls “hurry up and get idle” or “HUGI,” which enable processors to finish tasks quickly, while preserving battery life.

The all new 2010 Intel® Core™ processor family is the first to integrate graphics into mainstream PC processors. With Intel® HD Graphics, the processors deliver stunning visuals and smooth high-definition (HD) video playback. It’s also the industry’s first integrated solution to deliver multi-channel Dolby* TrueHD and DTS* Premium Suite home theater audio. In addition, Intel HD Graphics support mainstream and casual 3-D gaming without the need for an add-in video card, and offer full support for the new Microsoft Windows* 7 operating system.

Another intuitive feature available to mainstream notebook buyers includes Intel Switchable Graphics, which allows users who play very graphics-intense games to automatically switch between Intel’s integrated graphics to a discrete version on the fly, without having to re-boot, for optimal battery life and performance.

Beyond Laptops and Desktops – Embedded Processors
The new 2010 Intel® Core™ embedded processors target devices that leverage PC-like operations in the smarter connected world, including ticket kiosks and self check-out machines, ATMs, digital signs, medical equipment, communications gear and industrial machines. For example, system owners at a bank or retail store can better manage their ATMs, kiosks or a smart register using these processor platforms. These embedded devices can optimize workloads, conserve power consumption, remotely manage their connected network, and even gather metrics based on video analytics for more effective advertising campaigns.

Intel also expanded the performance-per-watt platform choices for embedded by adding error correcting code memory for applications that require a higher data integrity standard. The embedded processors, together with Intel 5 Series chipsets, offer an extended, seven-year life cycle that better matches how long these devices are in the marketplace.

Wireless Products, WiMAX and More
The Intel Centrino® brand now represents Intel’s wireless products, targeting a broader range of users than ever before. Three new Intel® Centrino® Wireless adapters feature advanced 802.11n multi-stream capabilities and dual-band support for WiFi, offering users up to 8 times greater speed3, consistent coverage and reliable connectivity while consuming minimal power.

Intel offers a complete line of high-quality adapters and its integrated WiMAX/WiFi adapter supports 2.3, 2.5 and 3.5GHz WiMAX bands delivering up to 20Mbps on the go.

All the adapters support Intel® My WiFi® Technology, which allows users to turn their laptop into a virtual hotspot and directly connect wireless devices to their laptop. Remote WiFi client management with Intel Embedded IT and Intel® Active Management Technology 6.0 also helps enable remote client management for the enterprise.

In addition, entry-level workstations now available based on Intel Core i5 with Intel HD graphics or an Intel® Xeon® 3400 series processors and the Intel® 3450 Chipset give users access to a workstation platform built around the efficiency, power and reliability demanded of a professional workstation. Intel will also offer the new 2010 Intel Core processor family on Intel® vPro™ Technology later in the quarter to help IT managers and corporations take advantage of hardware-assisted security and manageability capabilities.


How to Increase Mobile Phone Battery Life

05 august 10<!–Chad Upton–>

By Akash Khadke

Sometimes, you’re far from your charger and won’t be back anytime soon. Here are some tips to extend your battery when it’s running low.

Not all of these tips will apply to all phones, so use the ones that match the features on your phone. If your phone, camera or other gadgets frequently run out of power while you’re away from an outlet, consider an economical backup battery charger.

Turn Off 3G and Data

Most data capable phones can operate in different modes. If you turn off the high-speed wireless data mode, such as 3G, you will significantly reduce the power your phone consumes. This is the single biggest thing I find affects battery consumption.

Dim the Screen

The screen’s backlight uses a lot of power, keeping it off as much as possible will extend battery life. On the iPhone, press the top button, on many BlackBerrys, press ALT + ENTER to lock the keyboard and shutoff the screen. If your phone has an option to adjust the brightness, dim it. If it has auto-brightness, enable it. If you can set an “auto off” time then set it to the shortest time allowed.

Text Message Instead of Calling

If you can get away with communicating by text message, this can save power too. Although, it does require your screen, so short messages are better. These messages are embedded in the signals that your phone is already sending and receiving to normally communicate with the mobile network, even when you’re not using the phone, so it’s a very efficient way to communicate.

Turn Wifi and Bluetooth Off

Wifi and Bluetooth are great conveniences, but when you’re away from your charger and worried about losing phone capabilities, they’re a luxury that can go. Most phones with these features, have an option to disable them.

Don’t Play Games or Music

Well designed mobile phone processors have a low power mode that sips power when the phone is waiting for incoming calls in standby mode. Playing games requires the processor to work at its limit, which requires a lot more energy than standby mode. The same goes for playing music, especially if they’re compressed, high bit-rate or encrypted or drm protected music files — extra processing is needed to process these files and power the headphones or internal speaker.

Stop Background Apps

Some background apps use more power than others, it really comes down to the hardware in the phone the app is using (ex GPS) and how processor intensive the activity is.

Generally, if you’re trying to save power, closing the apps you don’t need can save power. This mostly applies to BlackBerry, Android and Windows Mobile devices.

It isn’t as important on iPhone since background apps aren’t true background apps, they have limited capabilities and therefore don’t consume a significant amount of battery power. That said, if you have a GPS tracking, VOIP or a music playing app running in the background, it could use significant amounts of power over long periods of time and it should be closed.

” 4G Mobile Technology ”


In response to ever increasing demand for fast communication mobile phone where invented .

The desire of consumer to get hands on latest technology has pushed mobile technology to its limit .

Expanding  the technological bubble more and more.

Mobiles are best mode for clubbing communication, entertainment ,web together making its user to be virtually omnipresent


  Mobiles came into with a sole purpose of communication but today it has taken over us in every walk of life transferring data faster than light.

Already 3rd generation communication technology has enthralled us ,and world is just getting glimpse of 4th generation technology

In this presentation a sincere effort has been made to provide knowledge about’ 4th generation mobile technology’ 

 Despite of our best effort its possible that some unintentional error might have escaped our attention .We would gratefully acknowledge if any of these is pointed out


We have great pleasure in presenting this report on “BLUETOOTH”. We’ll express our regards to those offered their valuable guidance in our work.

We take this opportunity to convey Our earnest gratitude to all the teachers of computer department and for guiding and helping us during the testing and assembly of our project and thus making our project a complete success.

We also wish to convey special thanks to our project guide Mr. Mayur, HOD Mr. Bhosle  who helped  and encouraged us during the making of our project to head towards the right direction.



The ever-increasing growth of user demand, the limitations of the third generation of wireless mobile communication systems, and the emergence of new mobile broadband technologies on the market have brought researchers and industries to a thorough reflection on the fourth generation. Many prophetic visions have appeared in the literature presenting 4G as the ultimate boundary of wireless mobile communication without any limit to its potential, but in practical terms not giving any design rules and thus any definition of it. In this article we give a pragmatic definition of 4G derived from a new user-centric methodology that considers the user as the “cornerstone” of the design. In this way, we devise fundamental user scenarios that implicitly reveal the key features of 4G, which are then expressed explicitly in a new framework – the “user-centric” system – that describes the various level of interdependency among them. This approach consequently contributes to the identification of the real technical step-up of 4G with respect to 3G.






In a world of increasing technological needs, the mobile Internet can play a significant role resolving the user’s capacity and connectivity needs. There is lots of research and suggestions around the 4G concept, where vendors and operators are trying to define it based on their preferred technology and strategic planning.

At the end of 2007, the total mobile subscribers were 3 billion, with GSM based users to grow over 2 billion. Several research reports are predicting that the WiMAX will commercially be deployed by 2009 and the LTE (Long Term Evolution) by 2015. However, the standards battle towards the 4G establishment is a major concern. ITU and IEEE are trying to secure a smooth transition into the new technology. (Figure 1)

There is no formal definition for 4G. It is a term used to describe the next step in wireless

communication. Several terms are also describing the concept, such as “Super 3G” or “Next Generation Wireless”. ITU is committed to announce the 4G definition during 2008, but certainly we are looking for a new converged system that will provide at least 100Mbps connectivity to the broadband users. 4G is expected

to offer data rates of 100 Mbps for mobile applications and 1 Gbps for nomadic applications and should be achievable by the year 2010.

Figure 1: 4G evolution into convergence [1],[2],[3]




The current defined objectives for 4G include [1],[2], [3],[4],[5]:

  • • Fully integrated IP solution
  • • “Anytime, Anywhere”
  • • Seamless connectivity- wireless and wireline
  • • Global access and interconnection
  • • Interoperability
  • • Data rates of at least 100Mbps
  • • Spectrally efficient system


There are several applications that could be supported and leveraged in the 4G due to the advanced

environment. These include mobile commerce with a dimension to mobile banking, peer-to-peer

networking and full usage of the advanced Internet services in the converged cloud. This cloud be

defined as a communications technology ecosystem (Figure 2) with a plethora of different services that

will give users a more convenient and easy lifestyle.

Figure 2: A suggested heterogeneous digital ecosystem [5]


Since 4G is not well defined yet, there is no demand or markets shaped yet. Therefore we are lacking forecasts or precise predictions that could help us to strategically plan for the market in an estimated time table. An interesting approach is to evaluate each country’s readiness to deploy 4G based on different criteria such as technological, business, legal, and policy.

The 3G in most cases and countries has not paid off yet and will not for the next 5 years. However, the operators are trying to decide on the best standard to invest in the long run and will cover their future needs ending up debating between the WiMAX and the LTE.

In this paper we describe an approach to study and evaluate the 4G readiness at a national level and answering the following research questions: Which countries are closer to 4G adoption? Since the markets are still shaping up, how can we forecast from the operators perspective, using the operators and vendors current trials and knowledge?

Our study aims to describe the new “4G readiness” concept, building upon the literature and the ereadiness concept [14] as well as the non-market factors as described in [16].

Along the same lines, we expect that a country’s 4G high ranking could be more an outcome and

indicator of innovation, supported with an advanced digital environment rather than a natural path of technological evolution.

This paper is organized as following: the first section describes the problem, section 2 gives an

overview of 4G current issues and technologies, section 3 describes the drivers and challenges for 4G,section 4 describes the suggested study and we close with section 5 as the conclusions.






The history and evolution of mobile service from the 1G (first generation) to fourth generation are discussed in this section. Table 1 presents a short history of mobile telephone technologies.

This process began with the designs in the 1970s that have become known as 1G. The earliest systems were implemented based on analog technology and the basic cellular structure of mobile communication. Many fundamental problems were solved by these early systems. Numerous incompatible analog systems were placed in service around the world during the 1980s.

The 2G (second generation) systems designed in the 1980s were still used mainly for voice applications but were based on digital technology, including digital signal processing techniques. These 2G systems provided circuit-switched data communication services at a low speed. The competitive rush to design and implement digital systems led again to a variety of different and incompatible standards such as GSM (global system mobile), mainly in Europe; TDMA (time division multiple access) (IS-54/IS-136) in the U.S.; PDC (personal digital cellular) in Japan; and CDMA (code division multiple access) (IS-95), another U.S. system. These systems operate nationwide or internationally and are today’s mainstream systems, although the data rate for users in
these system is very limited. 

During the 1990s, two organizations worked to define the next, or 3G, mobile system, which would eliminate previous incompatibilities and become a truly global system. The 3G system would have higher quality voice channels, as well as broadband data capabilities, up to 2 Mbps. Unfortunately, the two groups could not reconcile their differences, and this decade will see the introduction of two mobile standards for 3G. In addition, China is on the verge of implementing a third 3G system. 

An interim step is being taken between 2G and 3G, the 2.5G. It is basically an enhancement of the two major 2G technologies to provide increased capacity on the 2G RF (radio frequency) channels and to introduce higher throughput for data service, up to 384 kbps. A very important aspect of 2.5G is that the data channels are optimized for packet data, which introduces access to the Internet from mobile devices, whether telephone, PDA (personal digital assistant), or laptop. 

However, the demand for higher access speed multimedia communication in today’s society, which greatly depends on computer communication in digital format, seems unlimited. According to the historical indication of a generation revolution occurring once a decade, the present appears to be the right time to begin the research on a 4G mobile communication system. 

This new generation of wireless is intended to complement and replace the 3G systems, perhaps in 5 to 10 years. Accessing information anywhere, anytime, with a seamless connection to a wide range of information and services, and receiving a large volume of information, data, pictures, video, and so on, are the keys of the 4G infrastructures. The future 4G infrastructures will consist of a set of various networks using IP (Internet protocol) as a
common protocol so that users are in control because they will be able to choose every application and environment. 

Based on the developing trends of mobile communication, 4G will have broader bandwidth, higher data rate, and smoother and quicker handoff and will focus on ensuring seamless service across a multitude of wireless systems and networks. The key concept is integrating the 4G capabilities with all of the existing mobile technologies through advanced technologies. 

Application adaptability and being highly dynamic are the main features of 4G services of interest to users. 

These features mean services can be delivered and be available to the personal preference of different users and support the users’ traffic, air interfaces, radio environment, and quality of service. Connection with the network applications can be transferred into various forms and levels correctly and efficiently. The dominant methods of access to this pool of information will be the mobile telephone, PDA, and laptop to seamlessly access the voice communication, high-speed information services, and entertainment broadcast services. Figure 1 illustrates elements and techniques to support the adaptability of the 4G domain. 

The fourth generation will encompass all systems from various networks, public to private; operator-driven broadband networks to personal areas; and ad hoc networks. The 4G systems will interoperate with 2G and 3G systems, as well as with digital (broadband) broadcasting systems. In addition, 4G systems will be fully IP-based wireless Internet. 

This all-encompassing integrated perspective shows the broad range of systems that the fourth generation intends to integrate, from satellite broadband to high altitude platform to cellular 3G and 3G systems to WLL (wireless local loop) and FWA (fixed wireless access) to WLAN (wireless local area network) and PAN (personal area network), all with IP as the integrating mechanism. 

With 4G, a range of new services and models will be available. These services and models need to be further examined for their interface with the design of 4G systems. Figures 2 and 3 demonstrate the key elements and the seamless connectivity of the networks. 


4G (also known as Beyond 3G), an abbreviation for Fourth-Generation, is a term used to describe the next complete evolution in wireless communications. A 4G system will be able to provide a comprehensive IP solution where voice, data and streamed multimedia can be given to users on an “Anytime, Anywhere” basis, and at higher data rates than previous generations.

As the second generation was a total replacement of the first generation networks and handsets; and the third generation was a total replacement of second generation networks and handsets; so too the fourth generation cannot be an incremental evolution of current 3G technologies, but rather the total replacement of the current 3G networks and handsets







4G is being developed to accommodate the quality of service (QoS) and rate requirements set by forthcoming applications like wireless broadband access, Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS), video chat, mobile TV, HDTV content, Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB), minimal service like voice and data, and other streaming services for “anytime-anywhere”. The 4G working group has defined the following as objectives of the 4G wireless communication standard:

Ø A spectrally efficient system (in bits/s/Hz and bits/s/Hz/site),[2]

Ø High network capacity: more simultaneous users per cell,[3]

Ø A nominal data rate of 100 Mbit/s while the client physically moves at high speeds relative to the station, and 1 Gbit/s while client and station are in relatively fixed positions as defined by the ITU-R,[1]

Ø A data rate of at least 100 Mbit/s between any two points in the world,[1]

Ø Smooth handoff across heterogeneous networks,[4]

Ø Seamless connectivity and global roaming across multiple networks,[5]

Ø High quality of service for next generation multimedia support (real time audio, high speed data, HDTV video content, mobile TV, etc)[5]

Ø Interoperability with existing wireless standards,[6] and

Ø An all IP, packet switched network.[5]

Ø In summary, the 4G system should dynamically share and utilise network resources to meet the minimal requirements of all the 4G enabled users











Motivation for 4G Research Before 3G Has Not Been Deployed?

  • 3G performance may not be sufficient to meet needs of future high-performance applications like multi-media, full-motion video, wireless teleconferencing. We need a network technology that extends 3G capacity  by an order of magnitude. 
  • There are multiple standards for 3G making it difficult to roam and interoperate across networks. we need global mobility and service portability
  • 3G is based on primarily a wide-area concept. We need hybrid networks that utilize both wireless LAN (hot spot) concept and cell or base-station wide area network design. 
  • We need wider bandwidth
  • Researchers have come up with spectrally more efficient modulation schemes that can not be retrofitted into 3G infrastructure
  • We need all digital packet network that utilizes IP in its fullest form with converged voice and data capability.


Hence Mobile technology developments will not simply end with deployment of 3G networks. Need for improvement motivates further development. Large mobile revenues are fueling funding for that development. As a result, R&D for 4G is already under way. 4G networks promise to offer bandwidth that’s comparable to that of landline networks, with mobility comparable to that of existing cellular services.

Already, a key controversy is emerging about whether 4G will be an evolutionary or a revolutionary development. Some people believe that 4G will simply constitute an evolutionary technology that will emerge in ten years or so. Such people point out that 3G development started many years before 3G deployment. Other people believe that 4G development must accelerate because 3G is a disappointment. Notably, users increasingly expect multi-megabit-per-second performance from their landline and Wi-Fi networks—but typical users of 3G services may never experience the 2-Mbit/s performance originally promised by industry. Business users and governments that are disappointed with 3G hope that 4G will yield revolutionary developments—not evolutionary ones. They hope that 4G deployments will occur on an accelerated timetable—before 2010, rather than in ten years.

New technologies do indeed promise to provide improved performance—even with limited spectrum availability. Existing technologies, including 3G, do not maximize the bit-carrying capacity of available spectrum. Improved capacity means ability to serve more customers with the same amount of resources. Thus, improved capacity promises lower capital and operating expenses per customer. Such benefits can result from technologies such as orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) and smart antennae.
Users and industries also hope that next-generation networks will deliver improved interoperability among networks and devices. One way to improve interoperability will be via software-defined radio. This report provides insight about how these technologies will fit into future 4G services. In addition, the report provides insight into the outlook for spectrum availability, all-IP networks, centralized versus decentralized networks, and other issues of interest to providers of wireless technologies and servicesThere is no formal definition for what 4G is; however, there are certain objectives that are projected for 4G. These objectives include: that 4G will be a fully IP-based integrated system. 4G will be capable of providing between 100 Mbit/s and 1 Gbit/s speeds both indoors and outdoors, with premium quality and high security.

Comparing Key Parameters of 4G with 3G



3G (including 2.5G, sub3G)


Major Requirement Driving Architecture 

Predominantly voice driven – data was always add on

Converged data and voice over IP

Network Architecture

Wide area cell-based

Hybrid – Integration of Wireless LAN (WiFi, Bluetooth) and wide area


384 Kbps to 2 Mbps

20 to 100 Mbps in mobile mode

Frequency Band

Dependent on country or continent (1800-2400 MHz)

Higher frequency bands (2-8 GHz)


5-20 MHz

100 MHz (or more)

Switching Design Basis

Circuit and Packet

All digital with packetized voice

Access Technologies

W-CDMA, 1xRTT, Edge

OFDM and MC-CDMA (Multi Carrier CDMA)

Forward Error Correction

Convolutional rate 1/2, 1/3

Concatenated coding scheme

Component Design

Optimized antenna design, multi-band adapters 

Smarter Antennas, software multiband and wideband radios


A number of air link protocols, including IP 5.0 

All IP (IP6.0)





Voice was the driver for second-generation mobile and has been a considerable

success. Today, video and TV services are driving forward third generation (3G) deployment. And in the future, low cost, high speed data will drive

forward the fourth generation (4G) as short-range communication emerges. Service and application ubiquity, with a high degree of personalization and synchronization

between various user appliances, will be another driver. At the same time, it is probable that the radio access network will evolve from a centralized architecture to a distributed one.

Service Evolution

The evolution from 3G to 4G will be driven by services that offer better quality

(e.g. video and sound) thanks to greater bandwidth, more sophistication

in the association of a large quantity of information, and improved personalization.

Convergence with other network (enterprise, fixed) services will come

about through the high session data rate. It will require an always-on connection

and a revenue model based on a fixed monthly fee. The impact on network

capacity is expected to be significant. Machine-to-machine transmission

will involve two basic equipment types: sensors (which measure parameters)

and tags (which are generally read/write equipment). It is expected that users will

require high data rates, similar to those on fixed networks, for data and streaming

applications. Mobile terminal usage (laptops, Personal digital assistants, handhelds) is expected to grow rapidly as they become more user friendly. Fluid

high quality video and network reactivity are imporuser requirements.

Key infrastructure design requirements include: fast response, high session rate, high capacity, low user charges, rapid return on investment for operators, investment that is in line with the growth in demand, and simple autonomous terminals. The infrastructure will be much more distributed than in current deployments, facilitating the introduction of a new source of local traffic: machine-tomachine. Figure 1 shows one vision of how services are likely to evolve; most such visions are similar.

Multi-technology Approach

Many technologies are competing on the road to 4G, as can be seen in Figure 3.Three paths are possible, even if they are more or less specialized. The first is the

3G-centric path, in which Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) will be progressively pushed to the point at which terminal manufacturers will give up. When this point is reached, another technology will be needed to realize the required increases in capacity andata rates.

The second path is the radio LAN one. Widespread deployment of WiFi is

expected to start in 2005 for PCs, laptops and PDAs. In enterprises, voice may start to be carried by Voice over Wireless LAN (VoWLAN). However, it is not clear

what the next successful technology will be. Reaching a consensus on a 200

Mbit/s (and more) technology will be a lengthy task, with too many proprietary

solutions on offer.

A third path is IEEE 802.16e and 802.20, which are simpler than 3G for the equivalent performance. A core network evolution towards a broadband Next Generation Network (NGN) will facilitate the introduction of new access network technologies through standard access gateways, based on ETSI-TISPAN, ITU-T, 3GPP, China Communication StandardsAssociation (CCSA) and other standards.

How can an operator provide a large  number of users with high session data rates using its existing infrastructure? At least two technologies are needed. The  irst (called “parent coverage”) is dedicated

to large coverage and real-time services. Legacy technologies, such as

2G/3G and their evolutions will be complemented by WiFi and WiMAX. A second

set of technologies is needed to increase.

capacity, and can be designed without anyconstraints on coverage continuity. Thisis known as pico-cell coverage. Only theuse of both technologies can achieveboth targets (Figure 4). Handoverbetween parent coverage and pico cellcoverage is different from a classicalroaming process, but similar to classicalhandover. Parent coverage can also beused as a back-up when service deliveryin the pico cell becomes too difficult.



Key 4G Technologies

Some of the key technologies required for 4G are briefly described below:


Software defined radio

Software Defined Radio (SDR) benefits from today’s high processing power

to develop multi-band, multi-standard base stations and terminals. Although

in future the terminals will adapt the air interface to the available radio

access technology, at present this is done by the infrastructure. Several infrastructure gains are expected from SDR. For example, to increase network capacity at a specific time (e.g. during a sports event),

an operator will reconfigure its network  adding several

modems at a given Base Transceiver Station (BTS). SDR makes this

reconfiguration easy. In the context of 4G systems, SDR will become an enabler for the aggregation of multi-standard pico/micro cells.

For a manufacturer, this can be a powerful aid to providing multi-standard,

multi-band equipment with reduced development effort and costs through simultaneous multi-channel processing.



Handover and mobility

Handover technologies based on mobile IP technology have been considered for

data and voice. Mobile IP techniques are slow but can be accelerated with classical

methods (hierarchical, fast mobile IP). These methods are applicable to data

and probably also voice. In single-frequency niques can be used when the carrier to

interference ratio is negative (e.g. VSFOFDM, bit repetition), but the drawback

of these techniques is capacity. In OFDM, the same alternative exists as in CDMA,

which is to use macro-diversity. In the case of OFDM, MIMO allows macro-diversity processing with performance gains. However, the implementation of macro-diversity implies that MIMO processing is centralized and transmissions are synchronous. This is not as complex as in CDMA, but such a technique should

only be used in situations where spectrum is very scarce  networks, it is necessary to reconsider the handover methods. Several tech-

Integration a Broadband NGN                                                                     The focus is now on deploying architecture                   

realizing convergence between

the fixed andmobile networks 

ITU-T Broadband NGN and ETSI- TISPAN).

 This generic architecture integrates all

service enablers (e.g. IMS, network selection,

middleware for applications providers),

and offers a unique interfaceto application

service providers.

2. Fourth generation wireless: an overview

2.1 Technological feasibility

There are several technologies suggested to deploy in the 4G and these may include:

􀂃 Software Defined Radio (SDR): is a radio communication system where components that have typically been implemented in hardware (i.e. mixers, filters, amplifiers, modulators/demodulators, detectors. etc.) are instead implemented using software on a personal computer or other embedded computing devices.


Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM): is a frequency-division

multiplexing (FDM) scheme utilized as a digital multi-carrier modulation method

􀂃 Multiple-input and multiple-output, or MIMO), is the use of multiple antennas at both the transmitter and receiver to improve communication performance.

Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS), standardized by 3GPP Time Division-Synchronous Code Division Multiple Access, or TD-SCDMA, is a 3G mobile telecommunications standard, being pursued in the People’s Republic of China by the Chinese Academy of Telecommunications Technology

All these technologies are typified by high rates of data transmission and packet-switched transmission protocols. 3G technologies, by contrast, are a mix of packet and circuit-switched networks.

2.2 WiMAX vs. LTE


The LTE technology that Nokia and the Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) are pushing is an upgrade to existing GSM networks, a fact that makes even the CDMA operator Verizon Wireless to join the 3GPP trials. It is also a strategic decision, in order to be compatible with its European, GSMbased

parent company, Vodafone. LTE looks like it can heal the GSM/CDMA rift that has divided the industry, as no major carrier has yet signed on with obvious CMDA 4G upgrade technology, Ultramobile Broadband (UMB).

4 LTE will have the following advantages:

  • • Fast, with peak data rates of 100 Mbps download and 50 Mbps upload
  • • It makes CDMA and GSM debates moot
  • • It offers both FDD and TDD duplexing, which means the upload and download speeds don’t have to be synchronous, so operators can better optimize their networks to use more upload channels
  • • LTE will have lower latency, which makes real-time interaction on high band-width applications using mobiles possible 3GPP LTE, one of the most advanced mobile communication technologies to date, is currently undergoing 4G technology standardization by the 3GPP. This is the most likely technology to become he 4G standard, as many of the world’s major operators and telecommunications companies are members of LTE/SAE (Long Term Evolution/System Architecture Evolution) Trial Initiative (LSTI).

These companies include operators, such as Vodafone, Orange, T-Mobile, NTT DoCoMo, China Mobile and Telecom Italia and vendors, Ericsson, Nortel, Alcatel-Lucent, Nokia Siemens and LG Electronics. These are also the companies that will be considered to have the advantage in deploying first the 4G services.

WiMAX has certain advantages mainly over the Fiber to the home (FTTH) technology. When bundled with broadband internet access and IPTV, a WiMAX triple play becomes very attractive to residential subscribers. Given the QoS, security and reliability mechanisms built into WiMAX, the users will find

WiMAX VoIP as good as or even better than voice services from the telephone company. It also offers a cost effective infrastructure with efficient use of spectrum. Currently, the average cost of WiMAX  802.16-2004 baseband has decreased from $35 to almost $20 today per subscriber [8]. 4G proponents will serve as complements or upgrades to advance the 3G limitation to deliver video/TV and high speed Internet access. For WiMAX, there is a limitation of wireless bandwidth. For use in high density areas, it is possible that the bandwidth may not be sufficient to cater to the needs of a large clientele, driving potentially the costs high. But the main competitor for WiMAX today is the fiber and

the wireline network that especially in the US is a real challenge for the residential users as the operators are deploying and growing really fast.


3. 4G drivers and scenarios


The rise of mobile subscribers by 2011 estimating over 4 billion in a combination with the converged systems and application are the main contributors of the 4G evolution.[17]

The new mobile user’s lifestyle is increasing needs capacity, although the ‘walled garden’ might still be a limitation restricting the customer’s experience. The users are changed from consumers into producers of content such as photos, videos etc. Several applications will drive the mobile broadband market globally, including:

  • • Web 2.0,
  • • Online blogs,
  • • Mobile music,
  • • Location Based Services (LBS),
  • • Multimedia messaging,
  • • Gambling and
  • • Mobile TV.

There are a few scenarios discussed in [3] including WiBro and [10], which all agree that 4G will

evolve during 2010 and 2015 and attempting to cover different markets as of restructuring and

transition into 4G. For the next 5 years Verizon needs will evolve into 28Mbps download speed, raising a really early 4G LTE adoption compared to Vodafone [11].

These scenarios could be summarized as following:

1. Independent 4G system with one standard, the 3GPP LTE

2. Transition from 3G into 4G with existing (3GPP LTE) or new service providers

WiMAX and WiBro

3. Co-existence of different standards

4. Spread of open transmission

To explain the above cases, we claim that history matters and the path dependent concept can really explain the long-term outcome based on initial conditions, as in our case. The 4G development depends 6 on the initial conditions as shaped from 3G in most of the cases. Based on the ‘Increasing Returns’ [13], and ‘Path Dependency’ [14], [15] where alternatives are possible, and regarding the standards, “the one selected and heavily invested is ‘good enough’ or even optimal and remains in use because it becomes established in use”. This theory is matching the scenario of different standards co-existence that will interact in the ecosystem and complement each other referring to an LTE+ and WiMAX that will be established and standardized as 802.16e that offers advanced mobility. This is what usually occurs in technological development scenarios.



4. 4G wireless – suggested study

  4.1. 4G readiness theory

The need for strategic planning and new services has led new studies that could give us an idea of the mcurrent 4G status of the countries and towards the future 4G deployment.

The 4G readiness concept is a new term defined in this proposed study deriving from the e-readiness. “E-readiness is a measure of the quality of a country’s information and communications technology (ICT) infrastructure and the ability of its consumers, businesses and governments to use ICT to their benefit. The measure of a country’s ability to leverage digital channels for communication, commerce and government in order to further economic and social development” Based on the above definition, we develop the 4G readiness concept. Consequently, the 4G readiness is the “state of play” of a country’s mobile wireless 4G preparation status, and the ability of its potential and existing consumers, businesses and governments to use in the future the mobile wireless to their benefit. Based on the 4G readiness criteria we will rank the countries and estimate how soon they will close the gap to new 4G technological environment. Also to describe our study we are going to use a theory, to measure each country’s innovation using the Motivation/Ability framework (Figure 3). In this framework, we are describing the 4 different sections and how they are adjusted into our problem. The Motivation means that the 4G including the digital convergence should be the pot of gold and the new opportunity waiting for the winners, the first movers. The Ability describes the resources needed to develop 4G and craft them into business models for new products and services.

In the “Looking for a target” section, the operators are still undecided regarding the more beneficial choice or are lacking the spectrum to develop a new market. This hesitation also can derive from the “Looking for the Money” section, since the players are still expecting the 3G to pay off before they move into a new investment or wait for the LTE+, in order to upgrade the GSM networks that might also include smaller cost, much less than developing a WiMAX solution. “The Dilemma” is what we can quantify using our 4G readiness metric and estimate it per country, assuming basic innovation and ability. Finally “The Hotbed” is addressing all the innovative countries that feel confident and in the right path for the 4G adoption in the near future.

Other important non-market factors for 4G based on the framework development are:

  • • Industry standards
  • • Cultural norms
  • • State of technological development
  • • Government regulation
  • • Country’s intellectual property infrastructure

We are applying non-market metrics and factors, because there are no markets structured shaped yet and even and the current 3G markets provide very little knowledge to support the new landscape for 10 years from today.







This study provided an overview of the 4G evolution and technologies. It also described the ereadiness ranking and the approach adopted in this study to adopt e-readiness for 4G readiness.

This type of studies and the expected results will shed light into the current operators’ strategies and market str ucturing at a national level. The ranking at country level will help us identify if the biggest players in these countries play a significant role and having an impact as leaders in 4G. The study will reveal which countries have a competitive advantage towards the 4G, the weak countries that might be strong in the digital part but weak in the mobile wireless area and the reasons. Finally we will pay special attention into the strong countries and perhaps identify the path and the strategies that will shape the 4G markets faster and accumulate more capital ands investments

 As the history of mobile communications shows, attempts have been made to reduce a number of technologies to a single global standard. Projected 4G
systems offer this promise of a standard that can be embraced worldwide through its key concept of integration. 

Future wireless networks will need to support diverse IP multimedia applications to allow sharing of resources among multiple users. There must be a low complexity of implementation and an efficient means of negotiation between the end users and the wireless infrastructure. The fourth generation promises to fulfill the goal of PCC (personal computing and communication)—a vision that affordably provides high data rates everywhere over a wireless network.




1. “4G Mobile Networks – Technology beyond 2.5G and 3G”, Jun-Seok Hwang, PCT’07
















1) IEEE: Institute of Electronic and Electrical Engineering.

2) LAN: Local Area Network. 

3) GAP: Generic Access Profile. This profile describes the mechanism by which one device discovers and accesses another device when they do not share a common application.

4)GIAC: General Inquire Access Code. The default inquiry code which is used to discover all devices in range.

5) GM: Group Management.